In dinosaurs, there are only two types of molecules-non-organic and organic.
Organic molecules consist of sugars, fats, carbohydrates, and lipids. As we all know, these compounds undergo chemical reactions that produce energy. Organic molecules therefore need a living host to which they can attach to grow and divide properly. The latest research from paleontologists shows that dinosaurs used cellular fences called “nucleoplasts” along with other molecules to protect their DNA fragments from harmful organisms. These “nucleoplasts” were composed of amino acids.
The research team discovered that these organic molecule remnants are devoid of amino acid residues that could have been responsible for the formation of the amino acid chains. These organic residues appear very thin and are dispersed throughout the entire cell. It is these thin organic molecule remnants that appear to have become the building blocks of the genetic material that forms the bases of life.
The studying scientists believe that the evolution of ancient dinosaur cells was catalyzed by changes in the environment. The environment was continually disrupted and new environments opened up in its wake. The process of evolution ultimately produced a set of cells that had the capacity for self-organization – the ability to self-replicate. The results of this self-organized behavior eventually ended up in dinosaurs that possessed cells that were capable of producing multiple offspring through a process called cell division.
Unlike modern cells, dinosaurs did not use a genetic template as part of their genetic code. The modern cell is much more similar to the ancient microbial world in that it uses DNA as a set of instructions that directs the production and functioning of millions of individual cells. However, dinosaurs still produced a series of daughter cells during the development of their embryo. Because these cells came from a different environment and a different time period, the reproductive capabilities of these cells are quite unique compared to those of the modern day. This discovery has shed new light on the history of the origin of these ancient organisms.
Researchers have found that these prehistoric cells contained molecules that resemble those which are found in modern day cells. These molecules also behaved in a highly self-organized manner, a process which is quite different than the modern way in which genetic materials are arranged into chromosomes and proteins. Because these ancient cells possessed a unique set of DNA and a different way of producing proteins, these types of molecules were able to survive for millions of years without any deterioration. These molecules are the same building blocks of modern day protein structures such as collagen and elastin.
In addition to these organic molecules, dinosaur cells also contain a large number of nitrogenous compounds. These compounds are very similar to the compounds that form the backbone of modern day cells. Although these compounds can be produced in the lab, they cannot be studied in detail because they are so difficult to crystallize. Instead, researchers focus their studies on the function of these molecules in the living organism.
One intriguing aspect of these compounds is that dinosaurs may not have been aware of them, but they seem to play a significant role in the health of their tissues.
These organic molecule remnants have revealed a lot about the early history of our species. They have shown that certain genetic abnormalities occurred in the fossil record that can be related to a mass extinction event. By revealing this history, researchers may be able to better understand the evolution of life on Earth. This new information may also shed new light on how these symptoms of an ancient cell disorder may be transferred to current day sufferers.
Organic Molecule Remnants Basis
In a paper accepted for publication in the Journal of Theoretical Biology, Michael Polkind and colleagues at the University of Chicago detail a study of fossilized dinosaur cells that occurred when these cells met an evolutionary juncture. The juncture identified in this study came from the evolution of chordate (cords). Chordae are structurally simpler than the osteoderms or other bone cells. They have an unusual amino acid composition and, as it turns out, the residue of these “ancestral” chordae can form a surprisingly diverse collection of organic molecules.
Dating this residue depends upon the chemical properties of each individual element. Polkind and his colleagues used several chemical methods to date the sequences. The first method they used was chemical tandemlease immunospecific coupling mass spectrometry. This method can identify amino acid residues with a degree of accuracy that is comparable to what can be achieved using the unassisted human fingerprint test.
Another method employed was tandem assembly. In this process, the researchers combined numerous DNA fragments and calculated the positions of their triplets. This method is much more accurate than the chemical methods used to date single DNA molecules. The final analysis was performed using a shotgun gel digestion method. The gel was incubated with the synthetic DNA and the collagen samples for one hour and then subjected to secondary analysis using the same gel for up to six hours.
The study of dinosaur cell biology reveals a great deal about the life histories of dinosaurs. Most dinosaurs belong to the same group of dinosaurs known as ornithischians. However, there are differences among these ornithischians in the kinds of feather and fur material they produce, in the way they walk, and in the manner in which they build their nests. These differences are well represented in the fossil record from the ancient era.
Organic molecule remnants from dinosaur cells reveal details about the way dinosaurs fed and grew. This study also provides molecular insights into the reproductive capacities of dinosaurs. This information is important to paleontologists because it helps them interpret the characteristics of fossil remains and determine how these fossils may have compared with the reproductive structures of living species.
Organic molecule remnants also shed light on the way dinosaurs produced and stored energy. The presence of sugar molecules in dinosaur cells indicates that these cells were capable of using the energy quickly. The study of cell metabolism in general and the fossil record in particular is hindered by the difficulty in accessing fossils of very old cells.
The study of ancient dinosaur cells and their preservation in alkaline conditions has led to the realization that dinosaurs did not require oxygen to survive. This oxygen requirement was more than doubled in dinosaurs compared to modern day amphibians and reptiles. The alkaline condition in which the remnants of an organic molecule are found in dinosaur cells represents a rich source of information about the metabolic processes that took place in prehistoric times.
Paleontologists are excited by the details uncovered by studies of dinosaur cells. These studies have provided the most complete information so far about the physiology and conservation of the physiology of dinosaurs. Studying the chemical make-up of dinosaur cells has shown that dinosaurs were capable of using numerous enzymes and steroid receptors. These findings suggest that dinosaurs must have used a diverse diet, in contrast to today’s research which depicts a very limited diet for these animals.
The study of organic molecule remnants in nuclei of ancient dinosaur cells represents a new and exciting approach to paleontology.
The study of organic molecule remnants in nuclei of ancient dinosaur cells can provide important data about the diet of dinosaurs. Paleontologists know that dinosaurs fed on organic molecules in their tissues at the same time as they ate the meat they consumed. This feeding habit is similar to the modern eating practice of some tribes. The researchers think these fossilized digestive enzymes came from plant material that would have been ingested by dinosaurs. Modern day carnivores also consume plant matter in their stomachs.
The digestion of plant matter and the breaking down of compounds in the digestive juices left in the plant matter provide the raw materials that carnivores use to break down the flesh of prey.
The study of dinosaur cells provides insight into the diet and activity patterns of these ancient creatures. These cells may also help explain why fossils of dinosaurs differ so much from the fossilized equivalents of different animals. The study of ancient DNA also points to the possibility of animals existing in the very early earth before the arrival of humans. Animals may also have colonized the earth before the dawn of mankind, and these animals may have used the fossils to build their nests and other habitats.
Researchers have succeeded in detecting and identifying organic molecule remnants in dinosaur cells. They have also shown that dinosaurs did not die of old age, contrary to many theories on how death works. Studying fossil cells opens up a new era in paleontology. This era may also shed light on how the modern living creature operates.
Studying Dino-saurian cells may also shed light on how this living creature is similar to and different from us.
Provided by Antonio Westley
Disclaimer: This article is meant to be seen as an overview of this subject and not a reflection of viewpoints or opinions as nothing is definitive. So, make sure to do your research and feel free to use this information at your own discretion.