As the population of Europe continues to rise, many animals have been forced into urban areas, leaving more room for wildlife to thrive. This is a good thing, but also poses potential problems. For example, Europeans are facing an influx of wolves, which threatens livestock. While this is good news for animal lovers, it is bad news for livestock.
The European bison has been in decline for decades but is now regaining population in some regions. The Bison’s plight is linked to human activity, such as farming. Bison hunters have also been known to do so for their meat. But reintroduction efforts have been a success in some areas. In Romania, for instance, the LIFE RE-Bison project reintroduced the bison to two Natura 2000 sites, in the Tarcu and Poiana Rusca mountains.
In the early 20th century, European bison populations almost disappeared, but thanks to successful conservation efforts, they are now making a comeback. Once listed as a Vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, bison populations are now considered Near Threatened. Bison once roamed across 10 northern European countries, including Poland, Russia, Belarus, and Finland.
But despite these benefits, it is unclear whether bison will ever completely recover from decades of conservation efforts. Some scientists believe the species will recover if humans continue their conservation efforts.
Recent studies show that the European beaver population is recovering. After decades of conservation efforts, its population has more than doubled, on average. The population was reduced to only a few hundred individuals in five isolated locations at the beginning of the twentieth century, but now it has grown to more than 330,000. Though this study only includes data from countries in Europe, beavers are estimated to number as many as a million worldwide.
The beaver population in Europe is increasing as beavers were legally introduced in certain areas. These successful releases have led to improved understanding of how the beaver lives in the landscape, as well as independent scientific evidence that these animals are vitally important to the functioning of ecosystems. Ultimately, this means that beavers could be key to restoring ecosystems and fighting climate change.
After centuries of over-hunting, the Eurasian beaver is once again starting to occupy much of its former range. The species was nearly eradicated from Great Britain in the 16th century, but recovery has been remarkable. The first wild release in England took place in the River Otter catchment in Devon, and further releases will be possible once further research is completed.
The grey wolf is one of the iconic populations of animals undergoing recovery in Europe after decades of conservation efforts. These wolves used to roam the continent but were nearly wiped out by the early twentieth century due to hunting and human encroachment on their habitat. Today, they can be found in most of continental Europe and are being considered for reintroduction to Britain.
The wolf’s recovery has been fueled by decades of scientific and legal studies and the success of the European Union-led initiative called the European Union’s European Strategy for the Conservation of Wolves. Before the ESA was created, wolves were practically extinct in the lower 48 U.S. states, and the agency appointed a recovery team to identify the best ways to bring the species back to the continent.
A recent study by the Zoological Society of London and Bird Life International showed that wolf populations have increased significantly in Europe in the past forty to fifty years. The report analyzed 50 species of wildlife found in Europe, including the grey wolf and European bison.
The brown bear Ursus arctos was once widespread throughout Europe. But due to habitat loss and hunting, many populations have been decimated. Today, there are only about 17,000 brown bears in Europe, spread across ten populations in 22 countries. The small size of the brown bear makes it especially vulnerable.
In the last few decades, hunting has been banned or restricted in Europe. Nevertheless, it is not yet clear if brown bears will recolonize the continent. But a recent study led by researchers from the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research suggests that bears can recover despite the recent decline in habitat. The study found that the continent has 380,000 square kilometers of habitat suitable for bears. This means that reintroduction is possible if we adopt beneficial management methods.
While coexistence with carnivores is still a challenge, attitudes towards the bears are changing. In the UK, bear numbers increased by four times between 1970 and 2018. The white-tailed eagle population is also on the rise in the Isle of Wight and west coast of Scotland. The overall population of the brown bear increased by 44 per cent between 1960 and 2018.
The Pink-footed goose is a species of goose that breeds in Iceland and Greenland and winters mainly in the British Isles. It is also found in Norway and Ireland. It is protected in Europe as a species of least concern under IUCN global Red List criteria.
The population of Pink-footed geese has increased in the last decades, but it has come into conflict with agricultural interests. In the populations’ flyway in Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands, there have been complaints of degraded tundra vegetation due to excessive grazing. In response to this, the AEWA has launched the International Single Species Management Plan (ISSMP) to ensure the conservation status of the population and the protection of its habitat.
The Protection of Birds Act 1954 has contributed to the recovery of the Svalbard Barnacle geese population. The legislation has also led to an increase in the Icelandic Pink-footed geese population since the 1950s. Despite these restrictions, Icelandic Pink-footed geeses have increased in number due to reduced pressure from hunting.
The recent ban on this activity has reduced mortality among the species. However, recent changes in demographic rates in Greenland may lead to a decrease in the adult population. This may affect estimates of survival.
The pine marten is an iconic species that is slowly recovering in Europe after decades of conservation efforts. This slow-breeding mammal lives in wooded areas where it is able to avoid predation. Its preferred habitat is a diverse woodland with old trees and an abundance of shrubs and ground cover. This woodland habitat provides perfect conditions for pine martens to find food and build dens. Males roam large territories, usually five to ten square miles, while females tend to stay closer to home. They cover their territories every 8-10 days, and do not like to share their territory with other males.
The Vincent Wildlife Trust began the Pine Marten Recovery Project in 2014, an ambitious six-year initiative to reintroduce pine martens to mid-Wales. This project involves extensive background research and a pilot release of pine martens each year. The aim is to increase genetic diversity and population viability by reintroducing the species to a population that was considered in danger.
The pine marten is a versatile omnivore that feeds on small rodents and birds. It is an essential part of the ecosystem because of its role in seed dispersal of various fruiting species and removal of carrion. Although the pine marten lives mostly in the trees, it also hunts on the ground. It has a high metabolism and requires a lot of food to survive.
Rhinoceros have been in serious decline for many decades. But,t recent conservation efforts are helping the species make a comeback in Europe. A major project was the successful reintroduction of eastern black rhinos into the country of Rwanda. Where they are threatened by potential poaching. The rhinos were bred and released into temporary enclosures in Akagera National Park. The place they could help restore the critically endangered subspecies.
Rhinoceros were once widespread throughout Asia and Africa, but today, most species are extinct or severely endangered. Three species are listed as critically endangered, due to habitat loss and criminal hunting for their horns. Because of this, conservation scientists will have to use all available methods to protect the species from extinction.
Researchers have been able to estimate rhino numbers, ages and sexes, and their habitat in order to determine their numbers. Now, they can start planning for their eventual release into the wilderness in a 10-hectare sanctuary in the park. There will be close monitoring of these rhinos to see whether they will survive.
The most significant threat to rhinos is habitat loss. Consumers’ increasing purchasing power may be creating an enormous demand for rhino horn. The African population of black rhinoceroses has decreased from over one million individuals in the 20th century to about three thousand today. The population is still threatened by habitat loss and poaching for rhino horn.
Provided by Antonio Westley
Disclaimer: This article is meant to be seen as an overview of this subject and not a reflection of viewpoints or opinions as nothing is definitive. So, make sure to do your research and feel free to use this information at your own discretion.